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伪满洲国时期故意篡改历史教科书中历史内容的

作者:佚名 来源:= 发布时间:2021-06-14 19:47
 

  摘要:在伪满洲国时期,日本帝国主义对中国人民进行了长期奴役教育,日本伪满洲国时期编写的历史教科书是日本帝国主义奴役中国人民的重要工具。本文基于对伪满洲国时期小学历史教科书等历史资料的研究,并参考和参考了相关著作,伪满洲国时期,日本帝国主义故意篡改了历史教科书中的历史内容。

  关键词:伪满洲国时期; 历史教科书; 篡改历史; 语篇研究

  在9月18日的事件之后, 日本帝国主义占领了中国东北的三个省。在殖民统治下十多年当日本侵略者对中国人民进行残酷的政治统治和疯狂的经济掠夺时,在文化上 还大力对中国人民进行奴隶制教育和欺骗性宣传。日本侵略者在伪满洲国建立了完整的殖民奴役教育体系,大力推进奴役教育,在东北人民中灌输奴役思想。为了加强殖民统治,奴役中国人民,日本帝国主义歪曲和篡改历史,宣布伪满洲国是与日本息息相关的独立国家,到处都显示出狼以东北为自己的野心。日本伪满洲国时期编写的历史教科书,是日本帝国主义对中国人民进行奴役教育的重要载体。为此,本文探讨伪满洲国历史教科书中故意篡改历史的主要内容。

  1。 伪满洲国历史教科书中故意篡改历史内容的验证

  为了奴役中国学生伪满洲国的历史教科书充满了颠倒黑白的描述, 推卸战争责任, 美化殖民统治。这是伪满洲国历史教科书中近代史上的一些重大事件。进行简要的比较分析。

  (1)关于东北的历史归属

  日本殖民统治者为建立东北伪政权奠定了法律基础。为了实现东北的长期统治,他故意在历史教科书中写文章,利用诡辩篡改中国历史,为伪满洲国创造了虚假的历史。伪满洲国历史教科书分为三部分。他们是满族史 Eastern History and Western History.Only talk about the history of "Manchuria" and the history of Japan,Don't talk about Chinese history,Openly split the four northeastern provinces of our country (that is, the four provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, and Jehol occupied by Japan) from the territory of China.In terms of compilation style,The textbook lists the ethnic names of the Northeast as "history",It is proposed that the Northeast and the Great Wall are not the same country,The historical dynasties in Northeast China are: Sushen, Fuyu, Goguryeo, Liao, Jin, Yuan, Qing,Later, the long drive went south to unify China.Use this forged history to separate the five thousand years of glorious history between the Northeast and the Chinese nation.A map of China in class is not allowed to hang,Can't even watch.There is no book about Chinese history in the bookstore.The concept of "China" is cancelled in the textbook,Instead, a series of subjugated slaves such as "Riman Manchuria", "the same language and the same species", "kingdom and paradise" and other content in the history textbooks of the Puppet Manchukuo.In a vain attempt to make the next generation of China not know their motherland,Forget about being a Chinese,Always be the "obedient people" and "good people" of Japanese rulers.同时,The Japanese colonial rulers created a legal basis for the establishment of a puppet regime of Manchukuo in the Northeast.And fabricated reasons from history, region, and culture,Promote the "foundation" of "Manchuria-Mongolia independence and Japanese-Manchurian harmony".例如, the national history textbook says "I, 满洲里 自古以来就是一个独立的国家。中国永远在风风雨雨中绝对不是中国领土。建国之初历史的必然性一点也不可疑。“①伪满洲国在《建国宣言》中也写道:“想想我在蒙古无处不在,属于边界,建立在很远的地方征服过去的所有房屋,可分和可审计产品丰富,真的是奥林匹克之家”②,东北地区在历史上是分开成立的,这是胡说八道。而且它已经多次合并到中国并分开。

  (2)关于1894-1895年的抗日战争

  关于抗日战争的背景(在教科书中称为抗日战争),伪满洲国历史教科书毫不犹豫地用大量的笔墨来描述战前两国与朝鲜的关系。写道:“在日本, 朝鲜是公认的独立国家,缔结平等条约后,清朝也把朝鲜当作一个州,想干涉一切,在那之后, 在朝鲜分为独立党和主要党。两党抗拒。独立党依靠日本的援助,大党依靠中国,两党不一样此时, 清代袁世凯带领军队帮助大党进攻独立党,独立党被击败。而已,日本担心由于朝鲜问题,将来, 这将导致日本与清朝之间的裂痕。深感担忧所以, the Tianjin Treaty was concluded.It was agreed that both countries would withdraw their troops from North Korea,If you have to send troops,Have to inform each other.Since the Opium War in Qing Dynasty,Both internal and external troubles arise at the same time,The country is declining,However, the Meiji Restoration in Japan has been completed,It is the period when national power is about to develop.at this moment,North Korea suddenly has a big party that advocates serving the Qing Dynasty and protecting the country.And independent parties that depend on Japan for independence,The two parties came together,Domestic disputes.So the Qing and Japan agreed to withdraw the North Korean garrison,When something happens to send troops to North Korea in the future,The two countries must notify each other."③The statement in the text is nothing more than to prove that the war between the two countries was completely China's breach of promise.The result of interference in North Korea's internal affairs.The final defeat was entirely due to the Qing government.The opposite of,Japan glorified itself as a defender and protector of North Korea's independence in textbooks: “Later North Korea started the Dongxue Party's rebellion,Qing Guo ignored the previous agreement,Sent troops to North Korea alone; so Japan also sent troops,To protect the Japanese in North Korea,He also advised the Qing country to work together to improve North Korean politics.Qing Dynasty should not,Instead, they asked Japan to withdraw its troops,After all, the two countries went to war.Qing Bing was expelled from North Korea,The Liaodong Peninsula was also occupied,The Qing country made peace with Japan,Recognize the independence of North Korea,Send out compensation,Give up the Liaodong Peninsula and Taiwan to Japan.The Liaodong Peninsula was given to Japan,Russia could not invade the East; so he wooed Germany and France,反对这场和谈建议日本将辽东半岛归还清国。“④

  (3)设立伪满洲国

  关于“满洲国”的成立, 日本帝国主义的丑闻,伪满洲国的历史教科书是这样描述的:“后来,日军能够突破大多数张军及其同伙的强盗,最后放下他的力量,从满洲全部开除。因此, 满洲人民等着自然, 他得救了并且摆脱了虐待。2月21日,蒙古的州长和国王在奉天会合,决定建立一个新国家,国名是满洲大同统治时期。戴朴仪于3月9日晋升为裁决。在长春的新都举行盛大的国家建筑典礼,完全脱离了国民党政府与旧军阀之间的关系。因此,这尊重公众舆论,努力工作,这个拥有3000万人民享受最大幸福的新国家,而已。“⑤

  文字说,伪满洲国是根据“省长和蒙古国王”的决议建立的。支持Pu仪执政的是满族。实际上,这是关东军以“民意”为幌子的丑陋戏。“在9月18日的事件之后,随着中国人民抗日运动的增强,日本侵占中国东北由于美帝国主义之间的矛盾,所以,日本帝国主义计划建立所谓的“满洲国”,劫持了1911年大革命期间被驱逐到东北的清朝最后一位皇帝Pu仪,让他在3月9日首次亮相 1932,The Puppet Manchukuo was established.On the third day of Puyi's “ruling”,The "Guidelines for Handling Manchurian Mongolian Issues" were announced.The "Outline" yelled: Manchuria and Mongolia want to "separate from China's power and become independent","Manchuria's public security" is "held by the empire","Take the Manchuria and Mongolia region as the front line of the empire's defense against Russia and China"⑥

  Although the Puppet Manchukuo operates as a state in name,But in fact it is an out-and-out puppet regime.In order to achieve the purpose of controlling the Puppet Manchukuo regime,The Japanese government passed the "August 8 Resolution",It is stipulated that the Japanese shall participate in the central and local government of the puppet Manchukuo with dual identities.And it stipulates: "Regarding Manchukuo's adoption of Japanese officials,The selection must be recommended by the commander of the Kwantung Army,Dismissal must also negotiate with the commander in advance to obtain his consent",The commander of the Kwantung Army "carried out substantial internal guidance" through the Japanese officials.⑦

  The prominent feature of the Puppet Manchukuo state institutions is the "secondary minister system."The heads of all administrative agencies are served by Manchu officials,These people just decorate the facade.Its deputy,That is to say, the so-called "secondary chiefs" are all served by Japanese officials.Grasp the real power of each department.Take its educational administration as an example,In 1933, the chief (Zheng Xiaoxu) and deputy chief (Xu Rufen) of the pseudo-culture and education department were both Chinese.But the chief of general affairs (Nishiyama Masanori) is Japanese⑧.On the surface,The "General Affairs Department of the Ministry of Culture and Education" should be a subordinate of the pseudo-Ministry of Culture and Education,Its power should not be higher than the "Ministry of Culture and Education",But in fact, due to the implementation of the "General Affairs Department Center System" at that time,The power of the pseudo-Ministry of Culture and Education is almost entirely in the hands of the director of the "General Affairs Department".In July 1937The Puppet Manchukuo implemented "administrative reform",Abolish the General Services Division,Re-established the Minister's Office.The subordinates are all Japanese,Implement the "secondary center system".For example, 在1939年, 民生部的伪部长是中国人孙启昌,副院长是日本的宫泽。 当第二个文化教育部于1943年成立时,部长是中国人卢元山,第二任院长是日本田中善夫。根据1933年版的“满洲国教育关系人员”,当时, 在伪文化教育部的150名官员中,70日文,占46。7%在总务部和学术事务部的重要职位中,更多日语,两者均占50%以上。明显地,伪满洲国的教育权掌握在日本人手中。伪满洲国的所有统治机构都广泛采用了这种治理。这也适当地反映了伪满洲国是伪政权,伪满洲国教育是伪满教的本质。满洲国同时存在日本侵略者犯有焚烧罪, 杀死 私通 在“王国”的标志下在东北掠夺。包括“重大十字军东征”, “大屠杀”, 日本侵略者对东北人民的“大规模逮捕”和野蛮的“三光政策”,它构成了日本侵略和占领中国东北的血泪史。这就是所谓的“理想国”,使人们“享受最大的幸福”吗?这是“国王的真实土地”吗?

  2。 伪满洲国历史教科书篡改历史的目的

  自从1874年日本派兵入侵台湾到第二次世界大战结束以来的70年里,日中关系可以说是在侵略与反侵略之间。这一段历史注定要对入侵者隐瞒。伪满洲国小学的历史教科书就是基于这个目的。掩盖并美化侵略战争。总之, 主要有两个方面:

  (1)掩盖美化侵略

  伪满洲国的历史教科书充满了对历史事实的歪曲,掩盖真相强制历史的谬误。首先,这些教科书散布着“满洲不是中国的固有领土”和“中国文化入侵满洲”的信息,为日本帝国主义者对东北的长期侵略和占领创造理论基础是徒劳的。然后,尽一切努力促进日本侵略者在殖民地的所谓成就。教科书大肆宣传“满洲是国王的天堂”,这是“三千万人口享有最大幸福的新国家”,字里行间日本军国主义者似乎是东北人民的救星,没有提及给东北人民带来的深重苦难。把朝鲜变成日本殖民地诸如在中国东北建立伪政权之类的抢劫行为被誉为对朝鲜和中国现代化的“援助”。它没有触及殖民主义剥夺其他国家主权和独立的核心。这充分暴露了殖民者掩盖和美化侵略的险恶意图。

  实际上,这包括双重欺骗。首先,完全无视殖民其他国家的基本罪行; 第二,我也忽略了以下事实,那是, 日本正在北朝鲜和中国发展铁路和工业,这是出于日本自身利益,特别是需要将朝鲜和东北作为侵略中国和其他亚洲国家的基地。日本做了什么总体上, 它是对朝鲜和东北地区的资源和劳动力的掠夺和开发。

  (2)奴役中国人和寄养人

  日本殖民者使用各种教育方法来培养东北人民的奴隶制。让它失去战斗意志,忠于满洲国皇帝和日本天皇。这种教育的最终目的是奴役中国人民的心。尤其是毒害幼儿的精神,它具有很大的强迫性和广泛的渗透性。日本殖民者首先为东北人民增强了满族的观念。在学校,要求学生每天唱伪满洲国歌。If a student says he is "Chinese",Instead of "Manchurians",Will provoke a severe beating.Under such education,Many students are confused,"We are called Manchurians,I often think: ‘we are Chinese,How come you become a Manchurian when you get to school?What is going on in Manchukuo?Is Manchukuo China?'”⑨ What's more,Many students naturally accepted the Manchu identity,And he is proud of being a Manchurian.A second-year high school student from the Puppet Manchukuo State wrote in a composition titled "The Optimistic Future of the Manchurian Empire": "By the Yalu River,Changbai Mountain,Those who reveal the flag of independence and the flag of freedom,What country is it?Said I am also the Manchurian Empire.Since the establishment of our country,Universal orientation,The wind from all over the world,Inner and kingly rule the country for the happiness of the people,Be kind to neighbors outside,To seek peace in East Asia.If this happens,Thriving,Focuses on industry,The craft must be developed because of it,Promote agronomy,The rice valley will have a good harvest.Look at the country's daily wealth,The country's strength is rising,It's not difficult to compete with the powers of East and West,Jie is stubborn in the universe.”⑩

  Jiang Jinglan, who had received twelve years of colonial education, recalled: "During the rule of the Puppet Manchukuo,People of my age have the deepest enslavement education,I have a deep understanding.微妙的奴役教育的结果,我的思想变化是:怯:地目击日本人的大屠杀; 怨恨-日本的入侵使我的家人无家可归,生活是艰辛的,母亲因筋疲力尽而过世。 努力学习,寻求“名声”,广宗药祖; 生存-做一个诚实的人,愿意申请工作赚钱养家。“⑨从他思想的演变中不难看出日本假奴隶制教育的有效性。他们培育的青年不仅未能复兴失去的祖国,甚至家庭仇恨的仇恨也逐渐消失,到底, 只剩下一个工作要服从,挣钱养家糊口并维持生计的唯一期望。培养忠于日本侵略者的“人才”,这是日本木偶奴役教育的出发点和归宿。伪满洲国的历史教科书中完全排除了抗日救国的内容。努力推广亲日思想的“中日友好”和“日子是密不可分的”。at the same time,日本人和p把日语的教学和普及视为灌输“日本精神”和亲日思想的重要手段。为了使东北地区的年轻人学习语言,从心理上讲习惯于接近日本民族,而且在不知不觉中 他对日本的侵略不敏感,甚至同意。在.的基础上,成为愿意服从日本殖民统治和压迫的“忠实公民”, 或是为日本入侵中国而努力工作的中国猎狗。

  3。 结论:

  一个国家的教育不发达且落后,这个国家将要衰败。 一个国家和民族没有文化,然后,这个国家必须灭亡,这个国家也将不存在。奴役历史教育的结果导致了奴隶意识的形成,并严重影响人们的思想。在日本帝国主义的长期高压政策的胁迫下,东北的广大人民敢于,不能有不同的思想。只能接受日本帝国主义提倡的愚民政策。在这个意义上说,伪满洲国的历史教科书是“中国日本化”的奴隶制教育教科书。

  日本在中国东北的14年殖民统治,奴役教育贯穿始终,东北年轻人遭受严重的精神折磨,降低中国东北地区年轻人的文化素质。我们可以看到日本殖民统治的残酷性。这造成了极为严重的伤害:日本侵略者竭尽全力向东北青年灌输奴役教育思想,老师只能按照日本的意图教书。东北的教育非常令人沮丧,令人窒息。在东北被占领的14年里,青年学生每天背诵《中华人民共和国成立精神》和《会uan民法》。全班的内容也是“修养”, “国家道德”, “日本人”, “行业”,学校里没有空气。东北的年轻人处于绝望的混乱境地, 无知, 不必要的 和混乱。日本帝国主义也灌输了奴役思想,例如“中日友好”, “不可分割的日子和丰满”, “民族和谐”, 和东北青年的“奠基精神”。为了将东北的年轻人培养成会说日语但不会说中文的听话的人, 只能工作并且受教育程度低, 并且仅由日语驱动。给中国人以沉重的精神sha锁,让中国人成为日本侵略者服务侵略的工具。

  简而言之,日本在东北实施的奴役教育给东北人民带来了空前的灾难。东北的教育史无前例地遭到破坏,年轻人的思想被极大地破坏了,我们研究这段历史,目的是揭露日本在中国犯下的罪行,唤起中国人民的精神,努力实现民族的伟大复兴。

  参考:

  11。齐红深主编:“见证侵华日本殖民地教育”,辽海出版社2005年第一版,第281页

  ①齐宏申:“日本对中国的教育入侵:日本对中国的教育入侵的研究和批评”,解放军(昆仑)出版社2005年版,168。

  ②《伪满洲国成立宣言》,载五强 主编:《东北十四年教育史料》(第一辑),吉林教育出版社1989年版。

  ③由南满州教育协会教科书编辑部编辑出版:《历史教科书》第1卷,第一次,满洲历史十六,抗日战争与俄国对满洲的入侵,4月8日印刷 昭和7日4月10日发行, 昭和7日。

  ④由南满州教育协会教科书编辑部编辑出版:《历史教科书》第二卷,第二篇,东方历史十七,最近的东洋(1),4月8日印刷 昭和7日4月10日发行, 昭和7日。

  ⑤由南满州教育协会教科书编辑部编印:《历史教科书》第1卷,第一次,满洲历史十九,最近的满洲4月8日印刷 昭和7日4月10日发行, 昭和7日。

  ⑥《满洲,蒙古问题处理纲要》,由日本历史小组编写, 历史系 复旦大学:“日本帝国主义对外侵略史料(1931-1945年)精选”,上海人民出版社1975年版,第63页。

  日[日]满志见面,东北沦陷十四年史的汇编和翻译:《满洲史》,1990年版,第55页。

  ⑧《满洲里文化教育年鉴》《文化教育部工作人员名单》,吴强主编:“东北十四年教育史料”(第二辑),吉林教育出版社1989年版,第85页。

  ⑨齐鸿申 主编:“见证侵华日本殖民地教育”,辽海出版社2005年第一版,第321页

  eng奉天教育协会:《奉天教育》第3卷, 不。 7,由奉天省教育厅教育协会发行10月1日, 康德第二年第103页

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