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词人晚年对自己一生落拓不羁

作者:佚名 来源:= 发布时间:2021-06-17 23:57
 

南乡子

我们虽然无法考知这首南乡子的具体写作时间,但就内容和作者的生平看,大约应是词人留居扬州时晚年的作品。

词人用“尘暗鹔鹴裘”换头过片,承上启下。“尘暗”二字承上,总结自己一生四海浪迹,风尘仆仆。暗,有布满、落满之意。鹔鹴裘,本指用鹔鹴鸟羽所制之裘。这里暗用《西京杂记》司马相如与卓文君私奔后还成都以身着鹔鹴裘典酒与文君欢饮的故事。这里用以引起下文,表达对妻子的怀念:“针线曾劳玉指柔。”原来这领鹔鹴大氅是妻子亲手辛勤缝制的。一个“劳”字表现了词人对妻子无限感激与思念之情。然而,此刻词人已步入晚年,如今是“一梦觉来三十载,休休”。即言待得词人感觉到妻子一片恩爱之情,仿佛如一梦醒来,为时已在三十年之后。罢了,罢了,这一切已如东流之水,一去不返了。无限愧悔之情,全包融在“休休”二字的一声长叹之中。绾束“空为梅花白了头”一句更见真情。梅花,暗用宋初隐士林逋典故。逋隐居西湖孤山,二十年不入城市,终生不娶,以种梅养鹤自娱,后世称其以梅为妻,以鹤为子。这里词人言自己为了追求隐逸而浪迹江湖,白白地虚度一生。以惟信的为人,OF COURSE HE WILL NOT FEEL THE SLIGHTEST REGRET FOR HIS PROUD BEHAVIOR.AND WHAT IS REVEALED HERE IS ONLY THE FEELING OF REGRET FOR THE BELOVED WIFE'S TRUE FEELINGS.THIS SENTENCE IS A RESPONSE TO THE ENDING OF THE FIRST FILM, "BO XING'S REPUTATION IS ALWAYS SAD".

孙惟信

首二句“璧月小红楼,听得吹箫忆旧游”以两件事为起因,逗引对往事的回忆。璧月,谓月圆如璧。一轮玉璧似的圆月照耀着小楼,远处传来了阵阵箫声。望月怀思本是中国文化积淀中的传统手法。同时那如泣如诉的洞箫更易令人感怀。“忆旧游”正是以这二者为触媒而引发出来的。“旧游”二字个中当包含词人后半生漂泊异乡、优游江浙、傲世睨俗的无限感慨。接着“霜冷阑干天似水,扬州”二句写词人凭栏眺望的感觉,并交待其时所在的地点扬州。楼外天凉似水,栏干上挂满秋霜。这一切无不使词人感到透心的清冷和孤寂。正因环境所致,同时加之地点又在扬州,所以词人不禁想起那“十年一觉扬州梦,赢得青楼薄幸名”的浪荡才子杜牧来。上片尾句“薄幸声名总是愁”正是借这一典故而抒写自己一生疏放、不拘小节,终而赢得薄情冤家的声名,今天想来这一切总是令人徒增愁怨。古人常说,人老易悔。如杜牧一样,词人晚年对自己一生落拓不羁、恣意优游的感慨是出泛泛的回顾,还是深深的自责,我们已无法确知了,但有一点可以断言,那就是词人婚后不久就出游苏杭,萍踪不定,和自己发妻离多聚少,因而晚年对妻子不免深有愧疚之情。下片则十分热切地再现了这份真情。

MOST OF THE POETS LIVE IN THE ARENA,TILL OLD AGE,HE IS KNOWN FOR BEING OPEN-MINDED AND OPEN-MINDED,IN HIS OLD AGE,LOOKING BACK,NO REGRETS.ONLY WHEN HE CARESSED HIS WIFE'S HAND-STITCHED WARM COAT, THE HATRED OF "EMPTINESS IS PLUM BLOSSOM",HE EVEN FEELS DEEPLY SELF-BLAME, SELF-ASHAMED, AND SELF-REPENTANT FOR HIS "BAD REPUTATION".FOR IT,IT MAKES THE WHOLE WORD'S EMOTION FLOW OUT FROM THE HEART AND SOUL,SINCERE AND TOUCHING.THIS IS ALSO A MAJOR FEATURE OF THE WORD ART.IN ADDITION,THIS WORD IS NOT FAKE,SIMPLE AND REFINED.IN ADDITION, THE POET REPLIED WITH SORROW FOR HIS WIVES,AFFECTIONATE,THAT'S WHY IT IS CALLED "WELL, CHARMING AND COLORFUL,SMART AND NATURAL",IT IS A FAIR COMMENT.(SHEN LIDONG)

词人孙惟信,字季蕃,号花翁,河南开封人,生活于南宋孝宗和理宗时期。其一生情志恬淡超逸。不愿满足祖荫得官,乃弃之不就,于浙江婺州结婚定居,后不久便离婺出游,留居苏杭间。自甘清贫,一榻之外,别无长物,常自炊而食,直到终老于江湖。惟信为人长身缊袍,气度疏旷,见者常疑为侠客异人。每倚声度曲,散发长笛,或奋袖起舞,慷慨悲歌。时名重江浙之间,公卿闻其至,皆倒屣而迎。这首词正是词人对自己一生放任不羁、寄居他乡的漂泊生涯的总结,从而流露了晚年对妻子的真挚怀念之情。

词的上片主要是回忆旧游,下片主要是思念妻子。

璧月小红楼,听得吹箫忆旧游。霜冷阑干天似水,扬州。薄幸声名总是愁。尘暗鹔鹴裘。针线曾劳玉指柔。一梦觉来三十载,休休。空为梅花白了头。

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